Agriculture Investment

- As climate change reshapes agriculture around the world, the international trade of agricultural products will be even more important to feed the growing global population, according to a new UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report which identifies where global harvests will rise and fall by 2050 and the “winners” and “losers” in farming as the planet warms in the coming years.

It points out how West Africa and India will likely see agricultural production fall while Russia, Canada and the US are expected to increase their agricultural output over the next 32 years, for example. Open, predictable and fair global food markets can help strengthen climate change response efforts and contribute to fighting hunger, says the new report The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets, 2018, which examines the relationship between agricultural trade, climate change and food security. With climate change poised to alter significantly the ability of many world regions to produce food, it is expected that international trade in agricultural products will have an increasingly significant contribution to feeding the planet and responding to climate-related hunger flare-ups. The report details how climate change will have significant implications for agriculture and food security.

Farmers in different parts of the world can expect yields to either rise or fall over the next three decades. By the middle of this century, higher average temperatures, changes in precipitation, rising sea levels, an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, as well as the possibility of an increase in damage from pests and disease, are expected to affect crop and livestock production, as well as fisheries and aquaculture. This impact will be uneven across regions and countries. In low-latitude areas, where most developing and least developed countries are located, agriculture is already being adversely affected by climate change, specifically, by a higher frequency of droughts and floods. For developing countries, climate change could exacerbate the food security challenges they already experience, it says.

For instance, farming yield could fall by as much as 2.9 percent in West Africa and 2.6 percent in India, the reports says, while in higher latitude regions, rising temperatures are projected to result in increases in agricultural production, for example, in Canada (2.5 percent) and the Russian Federation (0.9 percent). Most tropical regions are likely to experience production losses due to rising temperatures while production in temperate regions is expected to benefit from warmer climates and longer growing seasons. The report also says that agricultural production may even become profitable in areas where this is currently not the case, such as cereal production in marginal areas of Finland. “South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, particularly West Africa, are among the most vulnerable regions to climate change. In these regions, national economies depend on agriculture for a significant share of GDP and employment,” says the report. “At the same time, small-scale family farmers have little access to innovative technologies and inputs, which limits their capacity to adapt to a changing climate.” “Differences in access to markets and technologies across countries and within countries are likely to exacerbate the effects of climate change. Indeed, uneven climate change effects in combination with differences in adaptation capacity may give rise to a growing divide between developed and developing countries.”

Readjusting trade policies International trade rules established under the WTO and newer mechanisms created under the Paris Agreement aimed at responding to climate change can be mutually supportive, argues the report. To achieve this, national agricultural and trade policies may need to be readjusted to help transform the global marketplace into a pillar of food security and a tool for climate change adaptation, it says. This is because climate change will affect global agriculture unevenly, improving production conditions in some places while negatively affecting others – creating sets of “winners” and “losers” along the way.

Food production in countries in low latitudes – many already suffering from poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition – will be hardest hit, the report notes. Regions with temperate climates, on the other hand, could see positive impacts as warmer weather lifts agricultural output. According to FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva, to prevent economic and food security gaps between developed and developing countries from widening even further, we must look to international trade. “We must ensure that the evolution and expansion of agricultural trade are equitable and works for the elimination of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition,” he says. “International trade has the potential to stabilize markets and reallocate food from surplus to deficit regions, helping countries adapt to climate change and contribute to food security.” “The uneven impact of climate change across the world and its implications for agricultural trade, especially for developing countries, underlines the need for a balanced approach to policies, which should enhance the adaptive role of trade while supporting the most vulnerable.” For that to happen, however, “wide-ranging policy actions are necessary,” the FAO DirectorGeneral added.

Trade policies that promote well-functioning global markets, combined with climate-smart domestic measures, investments and social protection schemes are needed. Trade as a safety net Many countries already rely on international markets as a source of food to meet their deficit. This can be due to the high costs of agricultural production like countries with limited land and water resources or when climate or other natural disasters undercut national food production. For example, in Bangladesh, in 2017, the Government slashed customs duties on rice to increase imports and stabilize the domestic market after severe floods saw retail prices of the stable grain soar by over thirty percent. Similarly, South Africa, a traditional producer and net exporter of maize, recently increased imports to dampen the effect of successive droughts. In general, FAO's report says that open, predictable and fair international food markets are essential for trade to help support food security and climate adaptation.

However, while better-integrated markets reinforce the adaptive role of trade to climate change, for countries already highly reliant on food imports, it would deepen that dependence, the report notes. Thus the importance of considering national priorities and objectives. Additional policy options Beyond market integration measures, an even wider range of non-distortionary policy approaches exist that could be used to better harness agricultural trade to help farmers build up their resilience, boost farm output, support food security, and reduce the food sector's greenhouse gas emissions. At the national level, these include spending more on research and development and on agricultural extension services to encourage the use of climate-smart approaches by farmers. Expenditures on environmental program and ecosystem services that reduce the negative effects of emissions from agriculture also would not affect trade.

Especially in developing countries at risk of climate change, support to farmers will be vital in helping them become competitive and achieve a better balance in export and import performance, notes the report. All of these options could be aligned with WTO rules as well as with newer commitments made under the Paris Agreement – there is no fundamental conflict between climate change policies under the agreement and multilateral trade rules, the report says. Recent trends in global agricultural trade The report also provides an overview of the performance of the international agriculture trading system in recent years and the direction in which it is headed. While fast agricultural trade growth between 2000 and 2008 gave way to contractions during 2009-2012 and then to sluggish growth ever since, the bigger picture is that in value terms agricultural trade grew significantly between 2000 and 2016 – from US$570 billion to US$1.6 trillion. Much of this was driven by economic expansion in China as well as increased global demand for biofuels.

Notably, the profile of emerging economies in global agricultural trade has increased dramatically, with rising per capita incomes and reduced poverty levels. This has boosted food consumption and imports and led to gains in agricultural productivity, driving up food exports, not only to markets in the industrialized world but also to other countries in the Global South. Indeed, while traditional food exporting giants like Europe or the US remain top agricultural exporters in value terms, newcomers are challenging their supremacy, according to FAO. Brazil increased its share in global food trade from 3.2 to 5.7 percent between 2000 and 2016. China leaped ahead of Canada and Australia to become the world's fourth most important agricultural exporter, and Indonesia and India increased their agricultural exports enough to place them among the world's top ten biggest food exporters (8th and 10th, respectively). Over the same period, the combined share in the total export value of the US, the European Union, Australia and Canada declined by ten percentage points. By Gaynor Selby

The agricultural exports of Egypt were estimated to be 4m tonnes in the season that ended last June. The Ministry of Agriculture, the Export Council and Haya Association target a 15% increase by the end of this year.

The Russian market has been one of the most prominent recipients of Egyptian agricultural products over the past few years as its imports were estimated to be $300m last season. 

Rising sea levels don’t have to spell doom for the world’s coastal wetlands. A new study suggests salt marshes and other wetlands could accumulate soil quickly enough to avoid becoming fully submerged — if humans are willing to give them a little elbow room.

The new study builds on previous work that suggests rising seas will increase sediment buildup in some parts of coastal wetlands. This increased sediment, as well as human adaptations to allow wetlands to move inland as the seas rise, could allow the coastal fringes to not only survive but to increase their global area by as much as 60 percent, researchers report September 13 in Nature.

Humans have good reason to preserve the world’s salt marshes and mangrove forests. These coastal zones, occupying the area from the coastline to the highest inland push of the tides, perform key services including filtering pollutants, pulling and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and protecting communities from storms. Rising ocean waters, however, could drown these ecosystems. Current sea level rise projections suggest 20 percent to 90 percent of the world’s coastal wetlands could disappear, depending on how warm the planet gets and how high the seas rise.

But the picture may not be so dire. Mark Schuerch, a coastal geographer at the University of Lincoln in England, says previous estimates of wetland resilience don’t consider that rising seas inundate marshes more frequently, particularly those at lower elevation. The water carries loads of sediment, so more frequent sediment deliveries may actually help the lower marshes rapidly build up soil elevation even as the water rises. “That made us think that, by including this in global models, we’d get higher resilience of coastal wetlands,” Schuerch says.

The researchers also wanted to investigate the role of coastal communities. Local-scale and even regional-scale studies suggest marshes can survive if allowed to expand inland, Schuerch says. People would need to make way by, for example, moving seawalls, rerouting coastal roads, giving up coastal agriculture or sacrificing seaside real estate.

Schuerch and his team considered global warming scenarios leading to sea level rise from 29 centimeters to 110 centimeters by the year 2100. The researchers also looked at global coastal population data, envisioning what population density numbers would allow wetlands to expand inward naturally — and what population density numbers would require communities to give marshes room to move.

Factoring in sediment supply alone improved the picture somewhat: Even under the highest sea level rise scenario, global wetland losses dropped 30 percent from their current global area of 200,000 square kilometers, rather than 90 percent.

Introducing human adaptations proved even more significant, allowing coastal wetlands not only to survive, but to thrive. Making way for inland marsh migration could increase the total wetland area around the planet by as much as 60 percent, the team found.

That 60 percent number is a long shot, Schuerch acknowledges, as many communities might balk at shifting their infrastructure and agriculture. Ultimately, “it’s going to be a cost-benefit analysis,” he says. “But if there are enough of these nature-based solution projects in enough regions, it’s possible.”

But some scientists suggest it’s not just a long shot, but wholly unrealistic to expect such accommodation, particularly in less-developed regions such as Southeast Asia or South America. “It’s not going to happen,” says Randall Parkinson, a coastal geologist at Florida International University's Sea Level Solutions Center in Miami Beach. Parkinson says he’s concerned that the paper is more of “an intellectual exercise” that doesn’t include any analysis of the real-world effectiveness of such coastal zone management strategies.

Still, the study gives a good first approximation of what sediment changes and policy shifts might mean for coastal wetlands, says Jonathan Woodruff, a coastal geologist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst who wrote a commentary on the study in the same issue of Nature. “Putting numbers to that is really important,” he says, but he notes that many questions remain. There has been little research on what happens as wetlands migrate inland, for example, and that process may not be so simple.

“There are a lot of things we still don’t have a firm grasp on,” Woodruff says, such as whether vegetation or soil conditions might hinder wetland migration, or how different species of mangroves can promote soil accumulation (SN: 8/18/18, p. 19).

Simulating how tidal wetlands might respond to sea level rise at the global scale is “a Herculean feat,” Woodruff says. “But you’ve got to start somewhere.” Scienemews 

Earth is finally free to rise after hundreds of thousands of years of ice suppression.

That, of course, is a provocative statement, however, from the point of view of the Earth, it is actually true. The Pine Island, Thwaites, Haynes, Smith and Kohler Glaciers, located in the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica , have been the stars of many alarming headlines regarding the accelerating pace of ice melt, the possible collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet, and sea level rise.


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